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Questions and Answers on Bottled Water
Source: Health Canada

Canadians have shown a lot of interest in the issue of bottled water. Below you'll find answers to frequently asked questions about the quality of bottled water sold in Canada.



What is bottled water?

Bottled water is water sold to consumers in sealed containers. It can be represented as "spring" or "mineral" water. It might also bewater from various sources that may have been treated to make it fit for human consumption and put in sealed containers for sale.

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Why has there been such an increase in the consumption of bottled water?

This is a matter of personal taste and preference for bottled water over municipal tap water. Survey results have also shown that consumers are concerned about the quality (chemical pollutants) of drinking water in Canada. Some people think that bottled water is safer than municipal tap water, but there is no evidence to support this.

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Are there bacteria in bottled water?

Bacteria are found in most bottled waters sold for drinking purposes. Bottled water is usually disinfected to remove harmful organisms, but is not intended to sterilize the water. Usually, sterile water is reserved for pharmaceuticals.

Many studies have shown that the levels of bacteria increase quickly to maximum levels after six weeks of unrefrigerated shelf life. However, since disinfection (ultra-violet (UV) light, or ozonation) destroys the harmful organisms, this natural regrowth of harmless flora of the water is not considered to be a health hazard. Refrigeration is recommended after the water container is opened in case harmful bacteria are reintroduced at this time.

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Can drinking water cause illness?

Untreated or inadequately treated water from wells and other sources can contain sufficient numbers of disease-causing organisms such as bacteria, parasites and viruses to cause illness. Health Canada is coordinating the development of the "Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality" and Canadians can be assured that Canada has high quality drinking water. These guidelines are intended to apply to all drinking water supplies, public and private.

Bottled water can also contain these contaminants. However, illness caused by bottled water is very rare in Canada because it is treated, disinfected and monitored to ensure the absence of harmful organisms. To the best of our knowledge, no waterborne disease outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of bottled water in Canada. Published reports have shown that in countries where manufacturing practices are not as strict as in Canada, improperly manufacturedbottled water has led to outbreaks of cholera and typhoid, and to "Traveller's Disease".

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What are the government regulations on bottled water?

In Canada, pre-packaged water (bottled water) is considered to be a food and is regulated under Division 12 of the Food and Drug Regulations. Bottled water is defined as follows:

Bottled water labelled mineral or spring water is a potable water (fit for human consumption) that comes from an underground source. It cannot come from a public water supply. Mineral water is spring water with a larger amount of dissolved mineral salts, usually above 500 milligrams per litre of total dissolved solids. (The content may vary depending on specific regulations in different countries. For example, in the United States, mineral water contains more than 250 milligrams per litre of total dissolved solids.) Mineral and spring waters must not have their composition modified through the use of chemicals, but carbon dioxide and ozone can be added during the bottling process to protect the freshness.

Bottled water not represented as mineral or spring water, is water from any source (municipal water, well water, etc) that can be treated to make it fit for human consumption or to modify its composition. Treatments include carbonation, ozonation, ultraviolet irradiation, and filtration to remove harmful bacteria. These bottled waters can be distilled or passed through different deionization processes to remove their minerals, or they are simply municipal tap waters bottled for sale. The label on these water containers must show how they have been treated, for example "carbonated", "demineralized", "distilled", etc. See Table 1.

All bottled water offered for sale must be safe for people to consume. Mineral or spring water must not contain any coliform bacteria or harmful substances at the source. Other bottled waters may undergo a variety of treatments and should meet the regulatory requirements for coliform and aerobic bacteria. Pre-packaged ice also has to comply with the regulations. Because they are foods, pre-packaged (bottled)water and ice also have to comply with all of the provisions of the Canadian Food and Drugs Act.

For example, no person shall sell an article of food that was manufactured, prepared, preserved, packaged, stored, or has been subject to any unsanitary conditions from the manufacturing stage through to retail.

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Could bottled water be manufactured from tap water?

Yes, except for water represented as spring water or mineral water which must be from a potable underground source and not from a community water supply. It is possible that some bottled water, such as demineralized water or distilled water, is simply tap water that has undergone a process to lower the mineral content and to remove chemicals such as chlorine. See Table 2.

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Are there any new standards for bottled water being put forth?

Health Canada is looking into new and stricter regulations and guidelines to prevent bacterial and chemical contamination. For example, the Department is considering introducing additional sampling plans and microbial limits for bottled water at the source and at various stages in the bottling process.

The Department is contemplating more stringent regulations to limit levels of specific chemical contaminants for all bottled waters, including spring and mineral waters. In collaboration with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, we are reviewing product standards and labelling requirements to ensure that the regulations provide an appropriate level of consumer protection and take into consideration international and technological developments.

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Who checks bottled water? How often?

Bottled water is classified as a food and therefore it is subject to the same surveillance that would apply to any food commodity marketed in Canada.

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) regularly inspects domestic bottled water manufacturers, and samples and analyses both domestic and foreign products to ensure that bottled water sold in Canada meets the requirements of Division 12 of the Food and Drug Regulations and is safe for human consumption. If the agency finds that a manufacturer is not meeting Canadian standards, inspectors will take appropriate actions to correct the situation, including following up with the manufacturer or the importer. The monitoring programs have, for the most part, focussed on the bacteriological quality of products available in the marketplace. The results from these monitoring activities show that most products tested complied with Canadian regulations.

Some provincial and municipal agencies also conduct surveillance of bottled waters. In addition, manufacturers that are members of bottled water associations must follow additional specific requirements to ensure the quality of their products.

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What kind of license is needed to start bottling?

The Canadian Food and Drugs Act and Regulations don't require a license to sell bottled water. However, as soon as the product is offered for sale, it would be subject to inspection by the CFIA. If you have any questions about licensing requirements, please contact your provincial or municipal government.

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Can buyers be confident they are getting safe and suitable water when they buy a bottle at a grocery store?

Bottled water sold in Canada has generally been found to be of good microbiological and chemical quality and is not considered to pose any health hazard. Consumers should be aware that bottled water is as safe to consume as tap water from a microbiological quality and chemical safety standpoint.

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Do soft drink bottlers use municipal water supplies?

Some do and some do not. However, no matter where they get their water, soft drink bottling companies generally subject it to additional treatments. Further questions on specific soft drink products should be addressed to bottling companies.

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Could distilled water have bacteria in it?

Yes. While the distillation process removes most of the bacteria, distillation alone cannot guarantee that bacteria will be absent in the final product. For example, unless the reservoir and/or bottle are sterilized before being filled, microorganisms can be introduced during the filling if appropriate care is not taken. Also, once the filled container is opened, the water is exposed to microorganisms.

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What types of bottled water do you recommend?

Susceptible populations, i.e., those whose immune systems have been weakened by disease, surgery or therapy, are particularly susceptible to bacterial diseases. For these individuals (and any others concerned about consuming bacteria), scientists recommend that they consume bottled water that has been ozonated, carbonated or disinfected in some manner.All these treatments disinfect the bottled water to eliminate harmful bacteria. Consumers are advised to read labels carefully or write to the bottled water manufacturer for detailed information on the process used.

Susceptible populations and others concerned about other microbiological contamination (viruses and protozoa) should contact their physician for advice on the types of water to consume and how they should treat their drinking water. Information on protozoa and immune compromised people is located at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/water-eau/index-eng.php.

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Should bottled water be used to clean contact lenses?

No. Use only those products designated for use with contact lenses. These products are sterilized and are safe for this use. If in doubt about the suitability of a product, check with your pharmacist.

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What is safe storage and use of bottled water?

To maintain the purity of bottled water, Health Canada recommends that you refrigerate the smaller bottled water once it is opened, and preferably once you buy it. The 18 L bottled water carboys should be dispensed through a refrigerated water cooler that is kept clean to avoid contamination (see Q.19) Check the bottling date and best-before-date on the bottle to determine how fresh the product is. Like many other food products, bottled water normally contains low numbers of harmless bacteria. However, if stored for prolonged periods at room temperatures, these bacteria can multiply rapidly. A 1988 Health Canada study of bottled water kept at room temperature for 30 days showed a substantial increase in the bacterial count.

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Could I store and use bottled water in case of emergency?

Yes. You can store large quantities of bottled water in a basement or cold storage area in case of problems with municipal supplies, in case of a natural disaster such as an earthquake or tornado, or in case of war or nuclear fall-out. The water should be disinfected in well-sealed containers, kept in cool, dark storage areas and changed every year. Bottled water manufacturers indicate that their product has a two-year shelf-life.

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What should I look for when buying bottled water?

It is recommended that you take the following precautions:

  • Don't buy bottles that have a broken seal. Examine the outside and inside of the bottle before you buy it. Do not buy any bottles with materials floating in it. Report any tampering or extraneous material to the store manager and health officials.
  • Do not be fooled by impressive labels. Examine the bottle and label for date of manufacturing or manufacturing code, best-before-date, chemical analysis (declaration of minerals), treatment (ex. ozonized, ozonated etc.), company contact number, location and type of source water.
  • Do not refill old bottles. It is preferable to buy newly manufactured bottled water.
  • Buy products that have no-spill caps, ensuring that water is not spilled and air does not enter the bottled water when replacing the bottle in the cooler.

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What can I do to ensure safe use of bottled water?

  • Do not share bottles, ie., do not have more than one person drink directly from a bottle. Pour the water into clean cups or glasses if more than one person is using the bottle.
  • While travelling, avoid bottled water unless it is carbonated or disinfected. Buy only sealed products. Wipe off the bottle or can top before drinking or pouring from them.
  • If you can't refrigerate bottled water, store it in a cool, clean environment away from heat and sunlight. Although manufacturers give bottled water a best-before-date or shelf-life of two years, Health Canada suggests you replace it after a year.
  • Clean water coolers regularly.
  • Use water dispensers with coolers that keep the water refrigerated. Some units have heaters as well.
  • If you are buying water marketed for a baby or an infant, check the label to see if the water is sterile. It is best to consult your physician or use according to infant formula preparation instructions. If you are a member
    of any susceptible population, buy disinfected bottled water. If particularly concerned, boil it before use.
  • Use water coolers that filter the air that enters the bottle as the water level lowers.
  • If you are concerned about chemical and bacterial content, contact the manufacturer. The manufacturer should be able to provide you with analytical print-outs. Most can be contacted via the phone numbers on the labels, by mail or even over the Internet.
  • Keep the bottle clean, and preferably refrigerated as the water and inside cap and liner can support bacteria. Clean the outside of the bottle cap and neck before and after each use, wiping with either hot soapy water or the chlorine solution listed in Answer 19.

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How do I maintain the cleanliness of a water cooler?

Cleaning your water cooler:(1)

  • Unplug cord from electrical outlet of cooler.
     
  • Remove empty bottle.
     
  • Drain water from stainless steel reservoir(s) through faucet(s).
     
  • Prepare a disinfecting solution by adding one tablespoon (15 mL) household bleach to one Imperial gallon (4.5 L) of water solution. (This solution should not contain less than 100 ppm available chlorine.)

or

  • Some companies suggest using one part vinegar to three parts water solution to clean the reservoir of scale before cleaning with bleach. Check your manual.

Note: Other disinfecting solutions may be suitable. Please check with your water cooler supplier.

  • Wash reservoir thoroughly with bleach solution and let stand for not less than two minutes (to be effective) and not more than five minutes (to prevent corrosion).
     
  • Drain bleach solution from reservoir through faucet(s).
     
  • Rinse reservoir thoroughly with clean tap water, draining water through faucets, to remove traces of the bleach solution.
     

Note: Clean your bottled water cooler with every bottle change.

Drip Tray (located under faucets):

  • Lift off drip tray.
     
  • Remove the screen and wash both tray and screen in mild detergent.
     
  • Rinse well in clean tap water and replace on cooler.
     

Replacing Bottle:
 

  • Wash hands with soap and warm water before handling. If you choose to use clean Agreements gloves (ex. latex), discard or disinfect after each use and prior to reuse. Note : Agreements gloves should never replace proper hand washing and hygiene.
     
  • Wipe the top and neck of the new bottle with a paper towel dipped in household bleach solution (1 tablespoon (15 mL) of bleach, 1 gallon (4.5 L) of water). Rubbing alcohol may also be used, but must be completely evaporated before placing the bottle in the cooler
     
  • Remove cap from new bottle.
     
  • Place new bottle on cooler.

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1. 1Adapted from instructions provided by Ken Orom, Calgary Board of Education, and Ken Reynolds, Calgary Health Services.


Storage of Bottled Water in Hot Cars and Other Vehicles

Health Canada is aware of reports appearing on the Internet expressing concerns about the potential degradation of plastic water bottles which have been left in cars exposed to summer heat. The focus of such concern has been the alleged release of cancer-causing chemicals from the plastic bottles into the water. However, there is no scientific evidence to support such a concern. Studies conducted on water bottles, even under severe temperature abuse conditions, have failed to generate the production of chemicals at levels that could pose a health risk to the consumer of the water in question. Health Canada will not hesitate to take appropriate measures to protect the consumer should evidence of such contamination be demonstrated.

Concern has also been expressed about the growth of contaminated microorganisms in the bottled water stored in hot vehicles. Most bottled water manufactured and sold in Canada is disinfected by the addition of ozone (or by other means) so that contaminating bacteria (E. coli) and other pathogens are eliminated from the product. Despite this fact, these products are disinfected but not sterile, so some bacteria (usually innocuous) are present. In addition, manufacturers filter the source water to remove the presence of parasites (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) from the final product. It is very unlikely that these microorganisms would be present in a commercial product.

It is more likely that bottled water will become contaminated by the consumer through contact of the opening of the bottle with the mouth and possibly hands. It is important that consumers always practice good hygiene: especially after washroom breaks. It is also important that consumers do not share bottled water that has come in contact with a person's mouth.

However, if the product was somehow contaminated, the heat produced in a closed vehicle from direct or indirect sunlight may be sufficient to destroy some pathogenic bacteria and parasties present in unprotected bottled water. Furthermore, parasites, such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium, do not multiply outside the human body or other hosts.

It is unlikely that there would be chemical hazards or biological risks resulting from storage of bottled water in hot vehicles, however Health Canada generally does not recommend this practice. It is better for all beverages and food products to be stored out of direct sunlight and in a cold environment, especially those that have been handled or opened. Therefore, it is recommended that either coolers or insulated lunch boxes with ice packs be used for these products. Any beverage or food that has been subjected to long periods of time in a hot car should be discarded.

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Where do I obtain more information?

The following is a list of possible contacts:

MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF BOTTLED WATER

Mr. Donald Warburton
Evaluation Division
Bureau of Microbial Hazards
4th Floor West
Sir Frederick Banting Research Center
P.L. 2204A1
OTTAWA, Ontario
K1A 0L2

Tel: (613) 957-1746
FAX: (613) 952-6400
E-mail: don_warburton@hc-sc.gc.ca

CHEMICAL QUALITY OF BOTTLED WATER

Mr. John W. Salminen
A/Chief, Chemical Health Hazard Assessment Division
1st Floor East
Sir Frederick Banting Research Center
P.L. 2201B1
OTTAWA, Ontario
K1A 0L2

Tel: (613) 957-1700
FAX: (613) 990-1543
E-mail: john_salminen@hc-sc.gc.ca

LABELLING, COMPLIANCE ACTIVITY AND INSPECTION

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) (613) 228-6682

OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON BOTTLED WATER

  • Provincial and municipal authorities can provide information on monitoring programs initiated by their respective health agencies.
     
  • Bottled water producers both here and abroad should be able to provide on request a chemical and bacterial analysis of their product. Consumers should also check labels to see if the manufacturer is a member of a provincial or international bottled water association, and thus must comply with additional industry standards.
     
  • For matters concerning the bottled water industry, contact

    Ms. Elisabeth Griswold
    Executive Director
    Canadian Bottled Water Association
    70 East Beaver Creek Road
    Suite 203-1
    Richmond Hill, Ontario
    L4B 3B2

    Tel: (905) 886-6928
    FAX: (905) 886-9531

    Alberta Packaged Water and Ice Association
    #11- 11 Hunchak Way
    St. Albert, Alberta
    T8N 6P2

    Tel: (887) 232-2624
    Fax: (780) 418-1567
    E-mail: apwia@connect.ab.ca

    For matters concerning bottled water in Quebec, contact

    Monsieur Michel Lavallee
    Gouvernement du Québec
    MAPAQ
    5199, rue Sherbrooke Est, bureau 4701
    Montreal, Québec
    H1T 3X3

    Tél: (514) 873-8878, poste 307
    FAX: (514) 873-7382

    FOR MATTERS RELATED TO PACKAGED ICE

    Mr. Serge Beaudet
    President
    Canadian Association of Ice Industries
    2655 Reading Street
    Montreal, Quebec
    H3K 1P6

    Tel: (514) 935-7413
    Fax: (514) 935-8998

    Mr. Martin Dorfman
    Alberta Packaged Water and Ice Association
    12136 - 121 A Street
    Edmonton, Alberta
    T5L 0A4

    Tel: (780) 451-4380
    Fax: (780) 452-6929
    E-mail: dorfman@powersurfr.com

TAP WATER (DRINKING WATER), DRINKING WATER TREATMENT DEVICES

Water Quality Program
Safe Environments
Healthy Environments & Consumer Safety Branch
123 Slater Street, 5th Floor
A.L. 3505A
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9

Tel: (613) 952-6750
FAX: (613) 952-2574
E-mail: water_eau@hc-sc.gc.ca
Website: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/waterquality

MUNICIPAL DRINKING WATER

Mr. T. Duncan Ellison
Executive Director
Canadian Water and Wastewater Association
2nd Floor, Unit 20
5330 Canotek Road
(Gloucester) Ottawa, ON
K1J 9C3

Tel./tél: (613) 747-0524
Fax/télécopieur: (613) 747-0523
E-mail/courriel: admin@cwwa.ca

 


Storage of Bottled Water in Hot Cars and Other Vehicles

Health Canada is aware of reports appearing on the Internet expressing concerns about the potential degradation of plastic water bottles which have been left in cars exposed to summer heat. The focus of such concern has been the alleged release of cancer-causing chemicals from the plastic bottles into the water. However, there is no scientific evidence to support such a concern. Studies conducted on water bottles, even under severe temperature abuse conditions, have failed to generate the production of chemicals at levels that could pose a health risk to the consumer of the water in question. Health Canada will not hesitate to take appropriate measures to protect the consumer should evidence of such contamination be demonstrated.

Concern has also been expressed about the growth of contaminated microorganisms in the bottled water stored in hot vehicles. Most bottled water manufactured and sold in Canada is disinfected by the addition of ozone (or by other means) so that contaminating bacteria (E. coli) and other pathogens are eliminated from the product. Despite this fact, these products are disinfected but not sterile, so some bacteria (usually innocuous) are present. In addition, manufacturers filter the source water to remove the presence of parasites (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) from the final product. It is very unlikely that these microorganisms would be present in a commercial product.

It is more likely that bottled water will become contaminated by the consumer through contact of the opening of the bottle with the mouth and possibly hands. It is important that consumers always practice good hygiene: especially after washroom breaks. It is also important that consumers do not share bottled water that has come in contact with a person's mouth.

However, if the product was somehow contaminated, the heat produced in a closed vehicle from direct or indirect sunlight may be sufficient to destroy some pathogenic bacteria and parasties present in unprotected bottled water. Furthermore, parasites, such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium, do not multiply outside the human body or other hosts.

It is unlikely that there would be chemical hazards or biological risks resulting from storage of bottled water in hot vehicles, however Health Canada generally does not recommend this practice. It is better for all beverages and food products to be stored out of direct sunlight and in a cold environment, especially those that have been handled or opened. Therefore, it is recommended that either coolers or insulated lunch boxes with ice packs be used for these products. Any beverage or food that has been subjected to long periods of time in a hot car should be discarded.

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TABLE 1.

Different types of bottled water

Spring and Mineral Water

Spring water Bottled potable water derived from an approved underground source [bore holes or springs that originate from a geological and physically protected underground water source and not from a public community water supply] that contains less than 500 mg/L total dissolved solids. Spring water may be treated to remove unwanted chemical and microbiological components but may not be labelled as "natural" (see below).
Natural spring water Same as "spring water", and in Europe must meet the collection requirements of "natural mineral water" (as below) without any treatment to remove bacteriological components.
Mineral water Bottled potable water obtained from an approved underground source [bore holes or springs that originate from a geological and physically protected underground water source and not from a public community water supply] that contains 500 mg/L or more of total dissolved solids. In Europe, mineral water may be treated to remove unwanted chemical and microbiological components but may not be labelled as "natural" (see below).
Natural mineral water Natural mineral water is mineral water (as defined above), but must meet the following conditions: it is collected under conditions which guarantee the original bacteriological purity; it is bottled close to the point of emergence of the source with particular hygienic precautions; it is not subjected to any treatments (other than removal of unstable constituents by decantation and/or filtration with the aid of aeration) that modify its essential mineral constituents; and cannot be shipped in bulk. A naturally carbonated natural mineral water is a natural mineral water which, after acceptable treatment, replacement of gas and packaging, has the same content of gas from the source. A non-carbonated natural mineral water is a natural mineral water which, after acceptable treatment and packaging, does not contain free carbon dioxide in excess of the amount necessary to keep the hydrogen carbonate salts present in the water dissolved. A decarbonated natural mineral water is a natural mineral water which, after acceptable treatment and packaging, does not have the same carbon dioxide content at emergence. A carbonated natural mineral water is a natural mineral water, after acceptable treatment and packaging, has been made effervescent by the addition of carbon dioxide from another origin.

Other Bottled Water

Artesian water Bottled water from a well tapping a confined aquifer in which the water flows freely at the ground surface without pumping. It has been proposed that the collection of the water can be enhanced with the assistance of external pressure so long as such measures do not alter the physical properties, composition, and quality of the water.
Bottled water Water that is placed in a sealed container or package and is offered for sale for human consumption or other consumer uses
Carbonated or sparkling water Bottled water containing carbon dioxide
Distilled water Bottled water that has been produced by a process of distillation and has an electrical conductivity of not more than 10 µS/cm and total dissolved solids of less that 10 mg/L
Drinking water Bottled water obtained from an approved source that has undergone special treatment or that has undergone minimum treatment consisting of filtration (activated carbon and (or) particulate) and ozonation or equivalent disinfection process
Deionized water Bottled water that has been produced through a deionization process to reduce the total dissolved solids concentration to less than 10 mg/L
Fluoridated water Bottled water containing added fluoride in such an amount that the total concentration of added and naturally occurring fluoride does not exceed 1 mg/L
Glacial water Bottled water from a source that is direct from a glacier. Glacial water shall meet the requirements of natural water
Natural water Bottled water (such as spring, mineral, artesian or well water) obtained from an approved source that is from an underground formation and not derived from a municipal or public water supply system. This water has undergone no treatment other than physical filtration, iron removal, and that has not had any significant change occur in the total concentration of the major ions in comparison with the concentrations occurring in the approved source water
Purified water Bottled water produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis, or other suitable process that contains not more than 10 mg/L of total dissolved solids. Water that meets this definition and is vaporized, then condensed, may be labelled distilled water
Well water Bottled water from a hole bored, drilled, or otherwise constructed in the ground, which taps the water of an aquifer. Well water shall meet the requirements of natural water

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Table 2.

A General Review of Bottled Water Treatment Systems1
Step Process Examples Purpose
1 Source Water Collection Artesian Well N/A2
Tap Water N/A2
Glacial melt N/A2
Springs, etc. N/A2
2 Aeration   Removes volatile organics, methane, hydrogen sulphide
3 Filtration Activated Carbon Filter Removes solids, odours, organics
Sand Filter Removes course solids
Manganese Filter Removes sulphur, iron and solids
4 Demineralization or Purification Water softeners Removes total dissolved solids,
coarse solids and minerals
 
Deionizer Removes dissolved minerals
Distiller Removes dissolved minerals, kills all known pathogens
Reverse Osmosis Filtration Removes 90% of the dissolved minerals and coarse solids
Cation, anion or mixed bed filters Removes Minerals
5 Mineral adjustment Mineral mix added Improves taste, mineral composition, chemical (eg. fluoride) composition
6 Purification Ozonation (0.4-0.6 ppm) Kills bacteria and parasites
Ultra Violet irradiation3 Kills bacteria and viruses
Filtration (1-5 µm)4 Removes bacteria and parasites
Carbonation Lowers pH and kills bacteria
7 Final Product Container filling N/A
Capping N/A
Coding N/A
Distribution N/A

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1 The processing steps listed above are generally used for bottled waters (Table 1).

2 N/A - not applicable.

3 >16,000 microwatt seconds/cm2 at 254 nanometres.

4 For removal of the oocysts of some parasites the filter must be "Absolute" pore size
of 1µm or smaller. This filtration may also be called "ultra-filtration" or "micro-filtration".

     
 

 
TCRC Division 76 Winnipeg - 2014